Also Available:Download the high-resolution JPG version of the image.  Sprites have been held responsible for otherwise unexplained accidents involving high altitude vehicular operations above thunderstorms.. Only then does a brilliant white lightning leader crawl slowly from the top of the cloud, reaching about 10% of the height of the gigantic jet before fading. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. Sprites are flashes of bright red light that occur above storm systems. , Blue starters were discovered on video from a night time research flight around thunderstorms and appear to be "an upward moving luminous phenomenon closely related to blue jets. National Science Foundation, 2415 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 | TDD: (800) 281-8749, National Science Foundation - Where Discoveries Begin, Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE), Environmental Research and Education (ERE), International Science and Engineering (OISE), Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences (SBE), Responsible and Ethical Conduct of Research, Proposal and Award Policies and Procedures Guide (PAPPG), Award Statistics (Budget Internet Info System), National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (NCSES), Proposal & Award Policies Procedures Guide (PAPPG). Unlike sprites, blue jets are, as the name implies, blue in color.  They occur in the ionosphere 100 km (62 mi) above the ground over thunderstorms. This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. They are similar to jets. Sprites have been witnessed thousands of times. Sie ragen bis zu 25 km in die Höhe, bevor sie sich auflösen. Unsere Redakteure begrüßen Sie zu Hause auf unserem Testportal. On July 22, 2002, five gigantic jets between 60 and 70 kilometres (35 and 45 mi) in length were observed over the South China Sea from Taiwan, reported in Nature. Gigantic jets between a thundercloud and the ionosphere. See also.  The jet was located above a thunderstorm over an ocean, and lasted under a second. Retrieved from, "Juno Discovers Sprites and Elves on Jupiter", "Sprites and Elves in the Atmosphere | Penn State University". ", "UPWARD ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES FROM THUNDERSTORM TOPS", Homepage of the Eurosprite campaign, itself part of the CAL (Coupled Atmospheric Layers) research group, March 2, 1999, University of Houston: UH Physicists Pursue Lightning-Like Mysteries, Ground and Balloon-Borne Observations of Sprites and Jets, Sprites and ELVES : Lightning's strange cousins flicker faster than light itself, Sprites, jets and TLE pictures and articles, High speed video (10,000 frame/s) taken by Hans Stenbaek-Nielsen, University of Alaska, NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Gigantic Jets Over Oklahoma (August 29, 2007). P1.39 The Discovery of Red Sprites as an Opportunity For Informal Science Education. Blue jets are beams of blue light propagating from the tops of active thunderclouds up to altitudes of ∼50 km. They appear blue to the naked eye, can last for up to several hundreds of milliseconds and are cone-shaped. Sprites are large-scale electrical discharges which occur high above a thunderstorm cloud, or cumulonimbus, giving rise to a quite varied range of visual shapes. Their color was a puzzle for some time, but is now believed to be a red hue. 57 DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5486-3", https://spaceweatherarchive.com/2019/10/25/close-encounter-with-a-gigantic-jet/, ELVES, a primer: Ionospheric Heating By the Electromagnetic Pulses from Lightning, "Red sprites and blue jets explained - New discovery! It was taken at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, a National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported facility. Use your mouse to right-click (Mac users may need to Ctrl-click) the link above and choose the option that will save the file or target to your computer. Several years later, the optical signatures of these events were named 'sprites' by researchers to avoid inadvertently implying physical properties that were, at the time, still unknown. Ghosts (Green emissions from excited Oxygen in Sprite Tops) are faint, green glows that appear after red sprites, fading away in milliseconds. "GJ event that was clearly recorded in eastern China (storm center located at 35.6°N,119.8°E, near the Huanghai Sea)". They were later dubbed 'pixies'.  The jets lasted under a second, with shapes likened by the researchers to giant trees and carrots.  In ensuing decades, high altitude electrical discharges were reported by aircraft pilots and discounted by meteorologists until the first direct visual evidence was documented in 1989. The jet was initially observed to be traveling up at around 50,000 m/s (110,000 mph; 180,000 km/h) at a speed similar to typical lightning, increased to 160,000 and 270,000 m/s (360,000–600,000 mph; 580,000–970,000 km/h), but then split in two and sped upward with speeds of at least 2,000,000 m/s (4,500,000 mph; 7,200,000 km/h) to the ionosphere where it then spread out in a bright burst of light. TLEs generally last anywhere from less than a millisecond to more than 2 seconds. , Rare transient luminous events that occurs over tops of thunder storms, C. T. R. Wilson (1924) "The electric field of a thundercloud and some of its effects,", Earle R. Williams (November 2001) "Sprites, elves, and glow discharge tubes,". There are several types of TLEs, the most common being sprites. TROLLs, (Transient Red Optical Luminous Lineaments) occur after strong sprites, and appear as red spots with faint tails, and on higher-speed cameras, appear as a rapid series of events, starting as a red glow that forms after a sprite tendril, that later produces a red streak downward from itself. Examples may be seen in the clip 'Blue Jets & Blue Starters – the video', Phillips, T. (October 25, 2019). Gnomes are small, brief spikes of light that point upward from a thunderstorm cloud's anvil top, caused as strong updrafts push moist air above the anvil. Although jets are considered to be a type of upper-atmospheric lightning, it has been found that they are components of tropospheric lightning and a type of cloud-to-air discharge that initiates within a thunderstorm and travel upwards. Unsere Redakteure haben uns der Aufgabe angenommen, Verbraucherprodukte verschiedenster Variante ausführlichst auf Herz und Nieren zu überprüfen, damit Sie zuhause schnell den Blue jet lightning sich aneignen können, den Sie zuhause haben wollen. TLEs are secondary phenomena that occur in the upper atmosphere in association with underlying thunderstorm lightning. The next known video recordings of a TLE were taken in 1989, when the Shuttle Mission STS-34 was conducting the Mesoscale Lightning Observation Experiment. Scientists do not yet know if this is a new phenomenon. TLEs have been captured by a variety of optical recording systems, with the total number of recent recorded events (early 2009) estimated at many tens-of-thousands. The terms red sprites and blue jets gained popularity after a video clip was circulated following an aircraft research campaign to study sprites in 1994. The top of the jet appears to look much more like a red sprite than a blue jet, with hot spots and a fuzzy diffused appearance. Blue jets occur much less frequently than sprites.  They normally are colored reddish-orange or greenish-blue, with hanging tendrils below and arcing branches above. Blue jets: project directly from the top of the thunderstorm in a narrow cone jet up to approximately 50 km altitude. Blue jets are cones of blue light brighter than sprites that spray upward from the tops of thunderclouds up to an altitude of about 25 miles (40 kilometers) at … The majority of these images, which include the first color imagery, are associated with a single thunderstorm. It was taken at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, a National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported facility. „blaue Strahlen“), die Zehntelsekunden dauern und im Bereich der Stratosphäre aus der Wolkenoberdecke regelrecht herausspringen. The two main types of jets are blue jets and gigantic jets.  "Blue starters appear to be blue jets that never quite make it," according to Dr. Victor P. Pasko, associate professor of electrical engineering.. A series of unusual, white luminous events atop the thunderstorm were observed over a 20-minute period, lasting for an average of 16 milliseconds each. Because blue jets typically last almost a full second, one can easily see the jet rise from the clouds with a fast video camera. In a similar process to how blue jets form, the higher charge region is discharged by the leader network before the same occurs in the lower charge region, and one end of the leader network propagates upward from the cloud toward the ionosphere. (690 KB)
(Date of Image: Unknown), Credit: Victor Pasko, Penn State University. , On March 28, 2017, Photographer Jeff Miles captured four gigantic jets over Australia..  That ELVES was discovered in the Shuttle Video by the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE) team at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL led by the Principal Investigator, Otha H."Skeet" Vaughan, Jr. ELVES is a whimsical acronym for Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources.  They are also brighter than sprites and, as implied by their name, are blue in color. Where blue jets are believed to initiate between the upper positive charge region and a negative screening layer directly above this region, gigantic jets appear to initiate between the upper positive and lower negative charge regions in the thundercloud. By 2007, fewer than a hundred images had been obtained. They are triggered by the discharges of positive lightning between the thundercloud and the ground. Walter A. Lyons and Michey D. Schmidt (2003). Transient luminous events have also been observed in far-ultraviolet images of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, high above the altitude of lightning-producing water clouds.. " They appear to be shorter and brighter than blue jets, reaching altitudes of only up to 20 km. The acronym ELVES (“Emission of Light and Very Low Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources”) refers to a singular event which is commonly thought of as being plural. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets.  From 35 miles, Holmes's video shows a blue streamer reach up from the top of a thunderstorm to the ionosphere, becoming red at the top. Lightning phenomena: sprites, elves and blue jets There are different types of lightning (or electrical discharges) that occur well above the realm of the thunderstorms that we experience in the troposphere (the lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere as it runs as high as about 17 km above earth’s surface). They are less than 100 meters across. ELVES (Emission of Light and Very Low Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources) often appear as a dim, flattened, expanding glow around 400 km (250 mi) in diameter that lasts for, typically, just one millisecond. The first video recording of a TLE was captured accidentally on July 6, 1989 when researcher R.C Franz left a camera running overnight to view the night sky.  They are about 200 meters wide, and have a maximum of 1 kilometer in height.  The phenomena were named after the mischievous sprite, e.g., Shakespeare's Ariel or Puck, and is also an acronym for Stratospheric/mesospheric Perturbations Resulting from Intense Thunderstorm Electrification. These atmospheric discharges occur very high in the Earth 's atmosphere - much higher than the familiar form of lightning. More about this Image A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as blue jet. In the 1920s, the Scottish physicist C.T.R. It was previously believed that blue jets were not directly related to lightning flashes, and that the presence of hail somehow led to their occurrence. When reviewing the video taken, two finger-like vertical images appeared in two frames of the film. In rund 40 km Höhe entstehen auf ähnliche Weise auch weiß-bläuliche, stichflammenähnliche Entladungen, „Blue Jets“ (dt. The global rate of TLE occurrence has been estimated from satellite (FORMOSAT-2) observations to be several million events per year. On October 16, 2019, pilot Chris Holmes captured a high-resolution video of a gigantic jet from 35,000 feet above the Gulf of Mexico near the Yucatán Peninsula. Beim Blue jet lightning Vergleich konnte unser Sieger in allen Kriterien das Feld für sich entscheiden. Blue jet lightning - Wählen Sie dem Sieger der Tester. The electrical contact may represent an important component of the global electrical circuit, says Basu. A smaller variation of blue jets are Huge Mystery Flashes Seen In Outer Atmosphere, http://webarchive.loc.gov/all/20020914103454/http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/, The Endless, Short film inspired by Sprite, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Upper-atmospheric_lightning&oldid=1001571655, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 08:06. The attribution of the accident to a sprite was made retroactively, since this term was not coined until late 1993. According to Sunanda Basu, a program director in NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences (which funded the research), the video is the first ground-based evidence of a direct electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower edge of the Earth's ionosphere. More about this Image
They are not connected to lightning strikes. C-sprites (short for “columniform sprites”) is the name given to vertical columns of red light.  They were first observed in 2019 by professional storm chaser Pecos Hank. , Pixies were first observed during the STEPS program during the summer of 2000, a multi-organizational field program investigating the electrical characteristics over thunderstorms on the High Plains. They resemble tall trees with quasi-vertical trunk and filamentary branches. They can also be preceded by a reddish halo, known as a sprite halo. The two main types of jets are blue jets and gigantic jets.  This refers to the process by which the light is generated; the excitation of nitrogen molecules due to electron collisions (the electrons possibly having been energized by the electromagnetic pulse caused by a discharge from an underlying thunderstorm). Blue jet lightning. This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. The storm center was located at 33°S, 60°W, near the city of Rosario. "Full report on the uncontrolled free fall of a stratospheric balloon payload provoked by a Sprite", Fractal Models of Blue Jets, Blue Starters Show Similarity, Differences to Red Sprites, "The Role of the Space Shuttle Videotapes in the Discovery of Sprites, Jets, and Elves", Fractal models of blue jets, blue starters show similarity, differences to red sprites, "Chinese Science Bulletin 2012, Vol. A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as blue jet. Upper-atmospheric lightning is believed to be electrically induced forms of luminous plasma. According to Victor Pasko of Penn State University, an electrical engineer working at Arecibo, pilots and others reported observations of red sprites and blue jets long before the first one was captured on video, and numerous undocumented reports of similar phenomena have appeared in scientific literature for over a century. On October 21, 1989 TLE'S were recorded during the Shuttle orbits 44 and 45. Blue jets develop on the tops of cloud formations at altitudes of 12 to about 26 miles high. , On February 2, 2014, the Oro Verde Observatory of Argentina reported ten or more gigantic jet events observed over a thunderstorm in Entre Ríos south. Gigantic jets reach higher altitudes than blue jets, and the upper portion of the jet changes color from blue to red. Their green glow has been hypothesized by its observers to come from excited oxygen atoms, much as how auroras appear green, however, this is unconfirmed. In contrast, other types of TLEs are not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it. Months after the accident, an investigation concluded that a "bolt of lightning" traveling upward from the clouds provoked the incident. Um bestimmt davon ausgehen zu können, dass die Auswirkung von Blue jet lightning tatsächlich nützlich ist, müssen Sie sich die Ergebnisse und Meinungen zufriedener Leute im Internet anschauen.Es gibt unglücklicherweise nur ziemlich wenige klinische Tests dazu, da diese ungemein kostspielig sind und üblicherweise nur Medikamente umfassen. They are not related to lightning.. The event was recorded using a monochrome, low-light video system, but the researchers all agree that the phenomena was seen visually as blue in color. ELVES were first recorded on another shuttle mission, this time recorded off French Guiana on October 7, 1990. The discovery is the first ground-based evidence linking the ionosphere with cloud tops in blue jet events. They were first recorded on October 21, 1989, on a monochrome video of a thunderstorm on the horizon taken from the Space Shuttle as it passed over Australia. The color is believed to be due to a set of blue and near-ultraviolet emission lines from neutral and ionized molecular nitrogen. The preferred usage is transient luminous event (TLE), because the various types of electrical-discharge phenomena in the upper atmosphere lack several characteristics of the more familiar tropospheric lightning. On November 10, 2012, the Chinese Science Bulletin reported a gigantic jet event observed over a thunderstorm in mainland China on August 12, 2010. Although jets are considered to be a type of upper-atmospheric lightning, it has been found that they are components of tropospheric lightning and a type of cloud-to-air discharge that initiates within a thunderstorm and travel upwards. Upper-atmospheric lightning (includes Blue Jets) Aurora (astronomy) Close encounter with a gigantic jet. They often occur in clusters, lying 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 90 kilometres (56 mi) above the Earth's surface. , On August 13, 2016, photographer Phebe Pan caught a clear wide-angle photo of a gigantic jet on a wide-angle lens while shooting Perseid meteors atop Shi Keng Kong peak in Guangdong province  and Li Hualong captured the same jet from a more distant location in Jiahe, Hunan, China. Wilson predicted that electrical breakdown should occur in the atmosphere high above large thunderstorms.  No scientific journals exist on these phenomena yet due to their recent discovery, but they have been observed on footage. On September 14, 2001, scientists at the Arecibo Observatory photographed a gigantic jet—double the height of those previously observed—reaching around 70 km (45 mi) into the atmosphere. Other events, having essentially lower terminal altitudes (<26 km), are named blue starters. Blue jets are believed to be initiated as "normal" lightning discharges between the upper positive charge region in a thundercloud and a negative "screening layer" present above this charge region. Other types of TLEs include sprite halos, ghosts, blue jets, gigantic jets, pixies, gnomes, trolls, blue starters, and ELVESs. Upper-atmospheric lightning or ionospheric lightning are terms sometimes used by researchers to refer to a family of short-lived electrical-breakdown phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal lightning and storm clouds.
These were taken in a series of 1994 aircraft flights to study sprites. C-sprites exhibiting tendrils are sometimes called “carrot sprites”. The positive end of the leader network fills the negative charge region before the negative end fills the positive charge region, and the positive leader subsequently exits the cloud and propagates upward. In contrast, other types of TLEs are not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it. Their color is unknown as they have only been observed in black-and-white footage. They last for only a few microseconds. Their apparent speeds are in the range of 10 s to 100 s km/s. Blue jets appear blue in color and go from the tops of clouds to a height of about 50 kilometers.